What is the name of the valve that separates the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart?
Correct Answer : B
The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart and helps to regulate the flow of blood between these chambers. It consists of two leaflets or flaps that open and close in response to changes in pressure as the heart beats.
During diastole, when the heart is relaxed and filling with blood, the mitral valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle. During systole, when the heart contracts to pump blood out of the left ventricle and into the systemic circulation, the mitral valve closes to prevent backflow of blood into the left atrium.
The mitral valve is one of four valves in the heart that help to ensure the unidirectional flow of blood through the heart and the rest of the circulatory system. Problems with the mitral valve, such as mitral valve prolapse or mitral stenosis, can lead to a range of symptoms and complications, including shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and heart failure.
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Correct Answer is A
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. After a person eats a meal, the levels of glucose in the blood rise, which stimulates the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin acts on various cells in the body, particularly those in the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue, to promote the uptake, use, and storage of glucose.
Insulin helps to lower the levels of glucose in the blood by increasing the uptake of glucose by cells, stimulating the liver and muscle cells to store glucose in the form of glycogen, and inhibiting the production and release of glucose by the liver. This process is known as glucose homeostasis, and it helps to keep the levels of glucose in the blood within a normal range.
Deficiencies or abnormalities in insulin production or function can lead to a range of metabolic disorders, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin, while in type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to the eﬀects of insulin, leading to elevated levels of glucose in the blood.
Correct Answer is C
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that carries amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Each tRNA molecule has a specific sequence of three nucleotides called an anticodon, which pairs with a complementary codon in the messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence. Each tRNA also carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to the codon it recognizes, allowing the ribosome to link the amino acids together in the correct order to form a protein.
In contrast, messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosome, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of the ribosome itself, where it helps to catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is involved in splicing of pre-mRNA molecules during post-transcriptional processing.
Correct Answer is C
Vaccines are a type of preventative medicine that work by exposing the individual to a weakened or inactivated form of a pathogen (such as a virus or bacteria) or to a piece of the pathogen (such as a protein or sugar) that triggers an immune response in the body. This exposure allows the body to develop immunity to the pathogen without getting sick from the full-blown disease. Once the immune system has been primed, it can recognize and quickly respond to the pathogen if it is encountered again in the future, providing protection against the disease.
It is a common misconception that vaccines can cause the disease they are designed to protect against. This is not true. While some vaccines may cause mild symptoms such as a low-grade fever or soreness at the injection site, they do not cause the full-blown disease.
Vaccines provide active immunity, meaning that the body produces its own antibodies against the pathogen, rather than receiving pre-made antibodies as in passive immunity. Additionally, vaccines can be eﬀective against both bacterial and viral infections, depending on the specific vaccine.
Correct Answer is A
The main diﬀerence between a solid and a liquid is their physical state and the way their particles are arranged. In a solid, the particles are tightly packed together and have a fixed position, which gives the solid a definite shape and volume. Solids are also characterized by their high density, low compressibility, and high thermal conductivity.
In contrast, the particles in a liquid are more loosely packed and can move around each other, which allows the liquid to take the shape of its container. Liquids have a definite volume but no fixed shape, which means they can be poured or spilled. Liquids also have a lower density than solids, are more compressible than solids, and have lower thermal conductivity than solids.
Option b) is incorrect because it describes the properties of a gas, not a liquid. Option c) is incorrect because solids and liquids have diﬀerent physical properties. Option d) is incorrect because it describes the properties of a gas, not a liquid or a solid.
Correct Answer is A
The data collected by the researcher on the number of cars passing through a busy intersection at different times of the day for a month would be most useful to analyze traffic patterns during rush hour.
Correct Answer is D
A double-blind study is a research design in which neither the participants nor the researchers know which group participants are assigned to. This is done to minimize bias and ensure that the results of the study are as objective as possible. In a double-blind study, the treatment and control groups are randomly assigned, and the participants and researchers are unaware of which group each participant is assigned to.
Option a) is an example of a randomized controlled trial, which is a common research design, but it is not necessarily double-blind.
Option b) is an example of an open-label study, in which both the participants and the researchers know which group each participant is assigned to.
Option c) is an example of a single-blind study, in which the participants do not know which group they are assigned to, but the researchers do.
Correct Answer is C
Osmosis is the process by which water molecules move across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, in order to equalize the concentration of solutes on both sides of the membrane. Selectively permeable membranes allow only certain molecules to pass through, while preventing the passage of others.
In osmosis, the movement of water molecules is driven by the concentration gradient of solutes, which cannot pass through the membrane. If one side of the membrane has a higher concentration of solutes
than the other, water molecules will move from the side with the lower concentration of solutes to the side with the higher concentration of solutes, in an atempt to dilute the solutes and equalize the concentration on both sides.
Osmosis is important in many biological processes, including the uptake of water by plant roots, the regulation of water balance in animal cells, and the preservation of food by adding salt or sugar to create a hypertonic environment that inhibits bacterial growth.
Correct Answer is A
A physical change is a change that aﬀects the physical properties of a substance, but does not change its chemical identity. Physical changes include changes in state, such as melting or boiling, changes in shape or size, and changes in phase, such as the dissolution of a solid in a liquid.
A chemical change, on the other hand, is a change that results in the formation of new substances with diﬀerent chemical properties. Chemical changes involve the breaking of chemical bonds between atoms and the formation of new bonds to create new compounds. Chemical changes are usually accompanied by a change in color, the formation of a gas or a solid, or the release or absorption of energy.
Overall, the main diﬀerence between a physical change and a chemical change is that a physical change only aﬀects the physical properties of a substance while a chemical change results in the formation of new substances with diﬀerent chemical properties.
Note:Choice B is partially cirrect since physical changes can involve changes in the state of matter (e.g., ice melting into water), but it's not the main characteristic. A chemical change typically involves the change of one substance into another with different chemical properties.
Correct Answer is B
Isotonic and isometric contractions are two types of muscle contractions that diﬀer in the amount of force produced and the movement of the muscle. In isotonic contractions, the muscle changes length and produces movement, such as lifting a weight. The force generated by the muscle remains constant throughout the movement. Isotonic contractions can be further classified as concentric contractions, in which the muscle shortens as it contracts, and eccentric contractions, in which the muscle lengthens as it contracts.
In contrast, isometric contractions occur when the muscle generates force without changing its length or producing movement. For example, holding a weight in a fixed position without moving it requires an isometric contraction. In an isometric contraction, the force generated by the muscle increases up to a maximum and then remains constant. Isometric contractions can be used to build strength and endurance in the muscle, but they do not produce movement.
Correct Answer is A
Chlorophyll a is the primary pigment responsible for photosynthesis in plants. It is a green pigment that is essential for capturing light energy from the sun and converting it into chemical energy that can be used by the plant. Chlorophyll a absorbs light most efficiently in the blue and red parts of the spectrum, and reﬂects green light, giving plants their characteristic green color
Chlorophyll b is another type of chlorophyll that is also involved in photosynthesis, but it is not as abundant as chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll b absorbs light most efficiently in the blue and orange parts of the spectrum and reﬂects yellow-green light.
Carotenoids are pigments that are present in many plants and are involved in photosynthesis as well as protecting the plant from damage caused by excess light. Carotenoids are responsible for the orange, yellow, and red colors of many fruits and vegetables.
Anthocyanins are pigments that give plants their red, purple, and blue colors. While they are not directly involved in photosynthesis, they play a role in atracting pollinators and protecting the plant from damage caused by UV radiation.
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